The genus Shigella consists of four species: S. dysenteriae (subgroup A), S. flexneri (subgroup B), S. boydii (subgroup C), and S. sonnei (subgroup D). Shigella organisms may be very difficult to distinguish biochemically from Escherichia coli. Brenner (1984) considers Shigella organisms and E. coli to be a single species, based on DNA homology. Nonetheless, Shigella species are Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, nonsporulating, nonmotile rods in the family Enterobacteriaceae. They do not decarboxylate lysine or ferment lactose within 2 d. They utilize glucose and other carbohydrates, producing acid but not gas. However, because of their affinity with E. coli, frequent exceptions may be encountered, e.g., some biotypes produce gas from glucose and mannitol. Neither citrate nor malonate is used as the sole carbon source for growth, and the organisms are inhibited by potassium cyanide (Andrews, 1998).
Andrews, W.H. 1998. Shigella, Ch. 6. In Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th ed. (revision A), (CD-ROM version). R.L. Merker (Ed.). AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.
Andrews, W.H., and June, G.A. 1998. Food sampling and preparation of sample homogenate, Ch. 1. In Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual , 8th ed. (revision A), (CD-ROM version). R.L. Merker (Ed.). AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.
Brenner, D.J. 1984. Family I. Enterobacteriaceae. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 1. N.R. Krieg (Ed.), p.408-420. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
Ewing, W.H. 1986. Edwards and Ewing's Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 4th ed. Elsevier, New York.
FDA. 1998. Bacterial pathogen growth. Appendix 4. In Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guide, 2nd ed., p. 241-244. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Seafood, Washington, DC.
Fehlhaber, K. 1981. Untersuchungen über lebensmittelhygienisch bedeutsame Eigenschaften von Shigellen. Arch. Exper. Vet. Med. (Leipzig) 35(6):955-964.
Jyhshiun, L., In, S.L., Frey, J., Slonczewski, J.L., and Foster, J.W. 1995. Comparative analysis of extreme acid survival in Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 177(14):4097-4104.
Merker, R.L. (Ed.). 1998. Media and Reagents, Appendix 3. In Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th ed. (revision A), (CD-ROM version). AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.
Sanzey, B. 1979. Modulation of gene expression by drugs affecting deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. J. Bacteriol. 136:40-47.
Ward, D., Bernard, D., Collette, R., Kraemer, D., Hart, K., Price, R., and Otwell, S. (Eds.) 1997. Hazards Found in Seafoods, Appendix III. In HACCP: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Training Curriculum, 2nd ed., p. 173-188. UNC-SG-96-02. North Carolina Sea Grant, Raleigh, NC.
Updated: 07/18/07 - Sea Grant Extension Program, Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis
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